Sample of colloidal concrete from the failed Wick Harbour Breakwater.
This sample was from the failed Stevenson breakwater at Wick of which only the shore end exists. It probably dates from 1873 and was made using Portland Cement. This concrete represents an early use of the material instead of stone in harbour and other marine structures. Professor Roland Paxton wrote an ICE paper about this breakwater. The reference is:
[Refereed paper] “The Sea versus Wick Breakwater 1863-77 – an instructive disaster”. Proc. ICE 9th Intl Coasts, Marine Structures and Breakwaters Conference in Edinburgh 16 September 2009. London, Thomas Telford, 2010. 8vo. 1. 31-42, 63-64, discussion. Identifies and reviews the sea damage failure mechanisms at play. See here.